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Access Sequence

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Access sequence in Partner Determination

Access sequence is a very important tool in partner determination. these are search strategies that a system uses to determine partner. We have to assign a access sequence to each partner function during transaction so that partner determination is carried out easily and automatically. If access sequence are not defined, the system won’t be able to search for a partner during a transaction.

  • Some Access Sequence in SAP CRM are  – 
  • Preceding Document
  • Business Partner Relationships
  • Business Partner Relationships By Sales Organization
  • Organizational Data
  • Pricing Hierarchy
  • Current Partner
  • Business Partner Assigned to the User
  • Business Add-Ins (BAdIs)
Access sequence in Partner Determination
Access sequence are a search strategies that a system uses to determine partner. While defining a partner determination procedure, we assign a access sequence to each partner function and during the transaction, the system knows how to search for a partners by using these access sequence. Access sequence are very important in partner determination. If access sequence are not defined, the system wont be able to search for a partner during a transaction. ‘
Table below explains some access sequence used during partner determination to search for partners.
Source
Explanation
Preceding Document
The document that precedes the current document in the document flow. For example, if a user creates a sales order, the preceding document might be a quotation.
Business Partner Relationships
General relationships defined in a partner’s master data. You can view and maintain them in the Contacts and Relationships assignment blocks.
Business Partner Relationships By Sales Organization
Sales area-specific partner function assignments defined in a partner’s master data. You can view and maintain them in the Contacts and Relationships assignment blocks.
Organizational Data
The organization model of your company defined in master data.
Pricing Hierarchy
An account hierarchy defined in business partner master data and assigned to the category Pricing.
Current Partner
A partner already included in the current transaction. For example, if the sold-to party has already been entered, it is the current partner. If you have assigned this source to the partner function ship-to party, the sold-to party is also entered as the ship-to party.
Business Partner Assigned to the User
A user can be maintained as a business partner and his or her user ID entered as part of master data. This source is the business partner for the user logged onto the system when partner determination occurs.
Business Add-Ins (BAdIs)
Sources you create yourself using BAdIs in Customizing. To create new sources by implementing BAdIs in Customizing, choose Start of the navigation path Customer Relationship Management Next navigation stepBasic Functions Next navigation stepPartner Processing Next navigation stepBusiness Add-In for Partner End of the navigation path
Own Products
This source is used in business transactions in opportunity management. You maintain information on competitors and competitor products in your business partner master data and use the source to enable automatic determination of this information in the transaction.

Partner Processing in SAP CRM

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In any business transaction like lead, sales order or service order.. If we enter the customer Id, then the system will automatically try to find all the partners involved with that particular transaction. System try to find the partners involve by a procedure called Partner determination procedure. PDP is a procedure where we combine partner functions and access sequence, so that system automatically finds the partner involved during a transaction.

There are two main concept which we need to keep in mind while defining PDP,

Partner Functions – Partner functions are generally the persone with whom we do business. This can be an employee, customer or any other.

Access Sequence – It is a search strategy a system uses to find for a partner function automatically during a transaction.

Defining Partner Function.

For partner function, go to SPRO > IMG > CRM > Basic Functions > Partner Processing > Define Partner Functions.

This is the screen it will look like. Select the new entry from the top to make a new partner function, or you can just copy from the standard available there.

You can look for function category, decide and select what function category you want for the partner function you are going to define. Suppose If I want to make a partner function by the name Regional Manager. the function category for this would be employee. If you cannot find any respective function category, then you can use Undefined partner for that.

Select CRM in usage option.

Now, you can select the relationship category from the standard defined in the system for the partner function. If you want you can also create your own relationship category.

Your new partner function is created. Save the entry.

Creating a new relationship category.

There are many relationship category standard defined already there in system. But If you want to create a new one, you can do so. Go to tcode BUBA.

Suppose you want to create a new relationship category for Employee, Select the BUR011 which is standard for employee responsible. Click on copy as.

Make the entry for the relationship category you want to have.

Now your relationship category has been created.
You can change the relationship category in the partner function which was created earlier.

Partner Determination Procedure.

We have to define PDP in a transaction like sales order(TA), so that when a new transaction is created, the system will find partner functions according to this.

For defining a partner function, we will use the Standard Item for sales.

Select the standard item and click on “copy as”.

Give a new name to your partner function procedure and save the entry.Select the newly created pdp and go to partner functions in procedure. You will find a list of all the partner functions available.

Now if you want to include your earlier created partner function in this pdp, you can do so by clicking on New Entry.

Here you will see a drop down box from which you can select your partner function. Here a thing you need to keep in mind. The partner function you just created wont reflect in the system, For this you have to log off the system and log in again. This is a common error across all sap crm system.

Select the Partner function you just created which you want to appear in the transaction. Select the proper access sequence for the partner function and save the entry.
Your new PDP has been created.

Date Management in SAP CRM

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In SAP CRM it is possible to process dates which are relevant to the business transaction. With Date Management we can do this. The date management procedure mainly consists of –

Date type. – A date is a defined time period which consist of a start and end time. For example valid from dates, valid to dates, cancellation dates etc.

Duration. – A time frame between two points in a time is duration.

Date rule. – A rule or method for calculating time is called date rule.

Date Profile – Date profile on the whole controls which date type, rule and durations should be used and defined for a particular transaction. 


Steps for configuring date management 
First we need to configure or set our date type, rule and duration. For this go to Spro > CRM > Basic Functions > Date Management >Define Date types, rules and durations.
Set the date type, by selecting new entry or just use the existing one.

Set the duration by using New Entries, you can also make copy of the existing duration or simply use the existing duration available in the system. Your choice is totally based on your requirements.

Set the date rule as per your requirements. Make a new entry from the option above and set the date rule.

Date Profile 

Now, for creating a date profile, we have to go to Spro > CRM > Basic Functions > Date Management > Define date profile.

We are taking the example of sales order, so we will be configuring the date profile for sales order transaction. Choose sales order.

Go to date rule and select the date rule as per requirement. Save the entry.

You can select as many date rule you want to appear in the transaction, as per your requirements.

Now configuring date types is bit tricky. Go to date type, if you want to add another date type other than the existing one, select New Entry.

A new screen will come up for the new entry. Select the date type you want to use and for that type, select the date rule you want to apply. You can select the date and time format from the option given there.

In this way, you can configure the date profile. 

Text determination in SAP CRM

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Steps How to configure Text determination Procedure

In SAP CRM the system captures data automatically for a business transaction but there are some instances where text instructions need to be added to clarify some requirements. Using Text Determinaton procedure, it is possible for user to maintain some textual information for several objects like business partner, product, product catalog etc. These texts should be entered when the document is being created.

Steps to configure Text determination Procedure

For this we have to define Text objects and Types, in case the Text objects and types are not there in the SAP CRM. Text types are nothing but it is a text container. SAP CRM provides a long list of test types, but if you want to create a new one, you can do so easily.


For creating a new text type, 
Go to SPRO > IMG > CRM > Basic Functions > Text Management > Define Text Objects and text types. Choose Text objects and ID.

Select the text object CRM_ORDERH, this is standard for transaction header.

You will find a exhaustive list of text types under CRM_ORDERH, But if your require some other text type, make a new entry here by clicking on create button and save the entry. A new text type will be created.

Now, Steps for Text Determination :

Go to SPRO > IMG > CRM > Basic Functions > Text Management > Define Text Determination Procedure.

Define Text object, Select CRM_ORDERH Which is standard for transaction header.

Select CRM_ORDERH and go to Procedure. Click on any transaction type you want to do text determination. Here we are taking an example of Sales Transaction, so we will select ORDER001, which is standard for sales.  Select a default procedure Order001.

Select ORDER001 and go Defination of procedure.Here you will see a list of all the text types which are already avialable there. If you want to add any other text type as per your requirements, go to New Entry.

Select any available text type from a list of text types in the system or choose one which you have created. Give it a sequence number and save the entry.

Your new Text type should be added there in the defination of procedure. You can make any text obligatory text by choosing the option given there.

This explains basics of Text Determination in SAP CRM

Organizational Data Profile

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What is Organizational Data Determination?


What is Organizational Data Determination?

While processing a business transaction, certain data are mandatory depending on the transaction type. For example in a sales order transaction, organizational unit, division and distribution channel are required for sales area data. There are two ways all these mandatory organization data can be determined in SAP CRM.

  1. No determination – In this case, no determination rule is set and we enter all the mandatory organizational data manually.
  2. Automatic Determination – – In this case, the system determines organizational data using the data available in the transaction. For example in a sales transaction we can determine the organizational data using pin code as an attribute. we have to create a determination rule for automatic determination of data. There are basically two determination paths(rules) provided in the CRM system for automatic determination of org data –
  • Rule Type Responsibilities – In this type of automatic determination, rule based on the values of the parameters choosen will be determined.
  • Rule Type Organizational Model – In this, rule based on attributes of organizational data are evaluated and used for automatic determination.

How Organizational Data Determination is using Organizational Model

Org data determination works in a simple way. The system reads the sales order first, it looks for the org data profile, if there is a org data profile applied to the sales transaction,then the system will determine the org data according to the rule applied in org data profile.

The Rule type Org Attribute model works in a simple way. Here we are taking an example of org data determination based on the attribute postal code. First of all, the org data determination will look for the attribute(postal code) we have used in determining org data. Then the system will use that attribute to find the sales organization, sales office, division and distribution cycle for that transaction.

We use a wizard to create a data determination profile which will determine org data for a transaction. For creating wizard data determination profile, Follow this steps.

Go to SPRO > IMG > CRM > Master Data > Organizational management > Organizational Data Determination > Wizard for data determination > Create Determination Rule of organizational model

In the wizard, enter basic data such as short name, description and package. In package, for now on we select $tmp, which is a temporary package. Click on continue – 

Select Sales Scenario –

Select the attribute that would be used to determine org data. We will select here attribute “postal code”.

Click on continue, continue and finish.
A new rule is now created. It is shown in the notification below. 


Assigning the org data rule to transaction types

Now, we have to assign this rule to the org data profile. For this go to SPRO > IMG > CRM > Master Data > Organizational management > Organizational Data Determination > Wizard for data determination > Create and assign Organizational data profile.

Enter the basic data and continue.

Select the scenario as sales.

In determination rule category, select “org attributes only”. –

The next window is determination rule window, where we have to enter the determination rule which we have created earlier. Select the determination rule which you have created and click continue –

Select the mandatory attribute if you want the attribute to be obligatory in the sales transaction profile, otherwise leave the field blank. 

Now assign the org data profile you just created to the transaction type. The org data profile now has been created and applied to the transaction type. 
Customization needed to be done in the org model.
Okay, you created a org data profile, assigned it to the transaction type. But it wont work until you do some important customization in the org model. Lets see what customization needed to be done there. 

Go to the org model using the tcode – ppoma_crm
Select the organizational unit and click on the attributes. Enter all the value of necessary attributes like division, distribution channel and postal code.

Now do a tick mark on the object permitted in determination. if you miss this step, the org data profile wont determine any data. So this is very important step. 

Now save the entry. 
To test whether your org data profile is working or not. 
Open a sales order by tcode – crmd_order
Enter a BP. 
Now, you will see the sales area data will automatically be populated with the sales organization, sales office, division and distribution channel. 

Business Transaction Processing

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In SAP CRM Business transactions are used to describe business process and transactions. It simply represents all the business interaction of your organization with different business partners. In order to understand the business transactions, you should first understand the types of business transactions in SAP CRM.


Transaction Types 

By defination, Transaction types define the characteristics and attributes of a business transaction. Whether it is a sales order transaction, service order or sales call, it determines how the transaction will be processed. Transaction types can be explained by following picture.

In SAP CRM, all the business transaction processing is controlled by the transaction types. Some basic function of the transaction types are shown in the figure above. Some important Transaction types used in SAP CRM are –

Lead      
Appointment
Quotation
Sales Order
Service Order

Prerequisites for Transaction types.

If you want to define a trancation type, you must first have some prerequisites profile that are to be used in the transaction types. Some of them are

Text Determination
Partner Determination Procedure
Date Profile
Organizational Data Profile
Status Profile
and so on…

Customizing Transaction types 

Path for customizing transaction types is – SPRO > IMG > CRM >Transaction > Basic Setting > Define Transaction Types 

T-code for transaction types is – crmc_process_ma

For a basic example in transaction type, we are taking Sales order, which in SAP CRM system is called as TA.

The details of the transaction type TA can be seen in this screenshot. In this picture, the tecnical name of transaction type sales order is TA. The leading transaction category which determines the structure of the business transaction of sales is BUS2000115 Sales. All the other general attributes such as contract determination, quotation determination, commitment date should be set according to the business needs.

The below field represent all the profiles need to be set in order to complete this transaction type profiles.

If you want to make your own transaction type for sales order. You can do so by clicking “Copy As..” and give a new technical name and description and save the entry.

A new transaction type has been created for your sales order.

Item Category

Item categories basically define the characteristics and attributes of a transaction item whether it is a sales item, service item, or any other and determine how the item is processed.

An item category is assigned to one or more business transaction categories (see “Business Transaction Categories” below). Only specific combinations of business transaction categories are allowed. In addition to the general settings for each item category, you need to make Customizing settings specifically for each business transaction category assigned to an item category.

Configuration of Item Category 
Path for customizing Item category is – SPRO > IMG > CRM >Transaction > Basic Setting > Define Item Category.
If we take the example of previous transaction type discussed “sales order”. The respective item category for sales order is TAN. 

Item category attributes are much like transaction type attributes. In this also you have to configure all the profile sets and other relevant data as per the business requirements.

Item Category Determination
An item category defines how a line item behaves in sales transaction. The processing of an item in a transaction is carried out by Item category determination. Item category determination is done by four main factors – Transaction Type, Item Category Group, Item Category Usage, Main Item Category. So, 

Item category detemination = Transaction type + Item Category Group + Item category usage + Main Item category

Divisions and Distribution Channel.

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There are two main attributes of organizational model which plays a very important role in organizational determination process. Those are –

  • Divisions
  • Distribution Channel.

Sales Area data mainly consists of Distribution channel + Divisions + Sales Orgnanization. So it is very important that we should configure and define these two attributes. Divisions are nothing but the categorization of which main business industry the organization belong to, whereas Distribution channel are nothing but a channel used by the organization to make their product reach to their end customer.

Define Divisions.

Go to SPRO> IMG > CRM > Master Data > Organizational Management> Division Settings > Define Divisions

Choose New Entries and maintain the entry.

Save the entries. Your new division has been created. 

Define Distribution Channel.

Go to SPRO > IMG > CRM > Master Data > Organizational Management > Organizational Data for Sales Scenarios> Define Distribution Channels.

Choose New Entry and maintain the entry.

Save the entries. Your new distribution channel has been created.

Organizational Management

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What is Organizational Management ?

What is Organizational Management ?

Each company has some organizational structure like company structure, employee positions and many other attributes. Organizational Management is used for the mapping of all these organizational structure of a company in the CRM environment. This organizational management allows you to specify organizational data automatically in a business transaction using the organizational structure.

There are different attributes of Organizational Structure which can be classified as Organizational attribute and general attributes.

Organizational Attributes
General Attributes
They are used to define the type of an organization. For example :
Sales Organization
Sales Office
Sales Group
Service Organization
They are used to define responsibilities of an organization. Some example of general attributes are :
Country
Division
Postal Code
Distribution Channel

Advantange of Organizational Management –

1. Flexible – The Org model can be changed. You can include your own levels and leave level out.
2. Time Dependent – You can maintain different org structures  for different time periods in parallel.
3. Adaptable and Dependable – Org model plan is not static. It is dynamic. We can maintain and so some change in org model at any time.
4. One Structure for sales and service

Aim of Organizational Management.

The main aim of the organizational management is you never have to think about your organizational data when you create a document.

This can be understood by this example –

Suppose a prospect customer calls in an office for some enquiry about a product. The agent creates an activity and takes down the name, address and other details of the prospect. Now the system uses the postal code to find the office responsible for this customer. An agent in this office can get in contact with the customer and creates an quotation and other follow ups.

Creation of Organizational Structure –

We use the following t-codes for org structure creation.

Create – ppoca_crm
Edit – ppoma_crm

For creating Orgnizational Structure,

1.Go to tcode – ppoca_crm

2. Select the validity for your org structure.

3. Give the name for your organization unit, like in this example, I have given the code name TEST_ORG, and write a short description of your organization.

Now, Select this org unit, go to “Function” and tick mark the sales organization. This way this org unit will become your main sales organization unit.

4. Now, to create the Sales office under sales organization. Right click on the new org unit you just created and select the “Create” option. Select “In line supervisor of”.

Give the name for your sales office.

A sales office unit will be created under sales organization. now go to “Function”, and select the option “Sales office” to make this org unit as your sales office.

5. Similarly, if you want to create a sales group under sales office, right on the sales office unit you just created and select the “Create” option. Select “In line supervisor of” from the pop up to create a sales group under sales office. Dont forget to select the option “sales group” under function, to make this org unit work like sales group.

Now, we have all three attributes of organizational model created above, like sales org, sales office and sales group. If you want to enter some employee for the respective unit, for example if you want to make an entry for CEO for TEST_ORG. For this, right click on the Test_org unit, again a pop will be generated. This time select “Incorporates”. Give a position and a code name for the position, and save the entries. You will see, a new position of CEO has been created under main org unit.

6. Now if you want to assign some existing employee for the post of CEO, You can do so by doing right click on CEO, click on Assign and choose “owner” from then pop up box.

Search for the respective Business partners whom you want to assign for the post of ceo.

Save the entries. Your new ceo entry for the org unit will be created.

This was all the basic about the Organizational model creation and assigning employee to the business unit.

Adding general attributes of Organizational Model.

1. Select the org unit, Go to Attributes for adding value to general attributes. There are many attributes like division, distribution channel, postal code, country, currency etc. Add values to whichever field you like. Select from the pop up that will generate for each attributes.

SAP CRM Marketing Process

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SAP CRM Marketing Capabilities

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SAP CRM Sales Process

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The following picture explains the CRM Sales Process